Uganda, officially known as the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in east Africa. It borders on South Sudan in the north, Kenya in the east, Tanzania in the south, Rwanda in the southwest and the Democratic Republic of Congo in the west. Parts of the borders with Kenya and Tanzania traverse Lake Victoria.
The official languages are English and Swahili. In the autonomous kingdom of Buganda the language of Luganda is spoken. In total there are 43 actively spoken languages in Uganda.
Uganda gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1962. From 1966 until 1986 the country suffered through the governments and leadership of Milton Obote and Idi Amin. This period was marked by a very authoritarian style of government which through violence, human rights violations and a situation resembling civil war, led to its economic decline.
In addition to this, the government under Idi Amin decided that all citizens of Asian descent had to leave the country. Since 1986 the country is governed by Yoweri Kaguta Museveni. Despite human rights violations and military conflicts with neighbouring countries, Uganda regained some stability and the economic situation improved. Nowadays the southern part of Uganda is once again a popular tourist destination. However there are still travel warnings in place for the north of the country, even though there have been no reports of attacks on foreigners since 1999.
A large part of Uganda is situated on a plateau at an altitude of about 1000m above sea level and thus the tropical climate in the south and the middle of the country is somewhat modified and lacks the extremes of the tropics. The temperature in these parts ranges from 25°C to 30°C during the day and around 17°C at night. The extremes can be as low as 10°C and as high as 35°C. The rainfall of about 1000-2500mm used to be distributed throughout the year with two dry periods (December – February and June – August). Nowadays some of the northern regions do not register any rainfall for years and the rest of the former tropical wet country has been reduced to one rainy season a year.